15 Kiap ukua?

Dialogue: Whose is this?

iiva:
Kiap una jaikanga?ᑭᐊᑉ ᐅᓇ ᔭᐃᑲᖓ? Whose is this jacket?
Aisaki:
Uvanga, jaikaga.ᐅᕙᖓ, ᔭᐃᑲᒐ. Mine, it's my jacket.
iiva:
Ukuali kiap pualungik?ᐅᑯᐊᓕ ᑭᐊᑉ ᐳᐊᓗᖏᒃ? And whose are these mitts?
Aisaki:
Taakkuak Jiilaup pualungik.ᑖᒃᑯᐊᒃ ᔩᓚᐅᑉ ᐳᐊᓗᖏᒃ. Those are Julia's mitts.
iiva:
Naulikiarngai nasara?ᓇᐅᓕᑭᐊᕐᖓᐃ ᓇᓴᕋ? I wonder where my hat is.
Aisaki:
Jiilaup jaikangata ataaniittuq.ᔩᓚᐅᑉ ᔭᐃᑲᖓᑕ ᐊᑖᓃᑦᑐᖅ. It is under Julia's jacket.

Vocabulary

Kiap ukua?
Who do these things belong to?
Kiap una?
Who does this belong to?
Una kiap nasanga?
Who does this hat belong to?
aggaak
gloves (two)
angijuqtaq
skirt
annuraat
clothing
atajuq
dress
atigi
caribou parka with fur inside
iglua
the other one
iglugiik
pair
igluinnaq
one of a pair
ikiaq
shirt
isigaujaak
shoes (a pair of)
isiriut
button
jaikak
jacket
jaikaktariik
suit
kamaaluuk
boots (rubber)
kamaaluuk ukiuqsiutiik
boots (winter)
kamiik
boots (skin)
kamikutaak
boots (long)
kiati
blouse
nagguarmik
ring
naqittaqtuq
snaps
nasaq
hat
nuijagaq
sweater
pualuuk
mittens (a pair of)
qaksungaut
tie for an amauti
qalipaaq
outer shell of a parka
qarlialuuk
wind pants
qarliik
pants
qiluaq
belt
qulittaq
caribou parka with fur outside
qungasiruq
scarf; men's tie
silapaaq
parka outer shell
siqiiq
zipper
taliaq
wrist watch; bracelet
titirautiga
my pen
titirautiikkak
my two pens
titirautiikkik
your two pens
titirautiit
your pen
titirautikka
my pens
titirautitit
your pens
ujamik
necklace
uviniruq
t-shirt

Grammar

possession (1)

In English we have words that we put before nouns to indicate who they belong to:

my father our house your door

In Inuktitut, we add an affix to the end of the noun. The above would be translated:

ataataga illuvut matuit

In English the words that indicate possession: my, your, our, etc. are fairly straightforward. There is only one form that we use before any noun, be it singular or plural:

my car
my cars

 

In Inuktitut, though, different endings are used depending on whether the thing that is possessed is singular, dual or plural.

 

SINGULAR FORMS:

illuga my house
illuit
your house
illunga
his / her house
illuvuk our (2) house
illuvut
our (3+) house
illusi your (2+) house
illungat
their house

 

SOME TRICKIER DETAILS...

(i) For nouns that end in vowels, you just add the ending.

If these endings are added to a noun that ends in a consonant, the last consonant is deleted:

jaikak + ga =

jaikaga my jacket
aggak + it = aggait
your hand (talking to 1 person)
illiq + nga = illinga her bed
ataatatsiaq + vut = ataataatsiavut our grandfather
qimmiq + si = qimmisi
your dog (talking to more than 2)
allavvik + ngat = allavvingat their office

 

 

(ii) -ga (my) has a second form, -ra, that is used after any noun that ends in q:

qajaq + ga= qajara my kayak
taliq + ga = talira my arm
nuliaq + ga= nuliara my wife

 

 

(iii) For the Inuktitut version of 'your' just add t (instead of -it) to roots that end in two vowels, or in a consonant that is preceded by two vowels:

tui + it =
tuit your shoulder
umiaq + it = umiat your boat
uasikuaq + it = uasikuat your vest

 


DUAL FORMS

paniikkak
my two daughters
paniikkik
your two daughters (talking to 1 person)
paningik
his or her two daughters
panivuk
our two daughters
panisik your two daughters (talking to more than 2)
paningik
their two daughters
  • An extra i is added before -kkak and -kkik to make pronunciation easier.
  • all dual endings delete the last consonant
  • the endings for “his / her” and “their” are the same. Context makes it clear what you are speaking of.

PLURAL FORMS

ilakka
my friends
ilatit
your friends (talking to 1 person)
ilangit
his or her friends
ilavut
our friends
ilasi your friends (talking to more than 2)
ilangit
their friends
  • all plural possessive endings delete the last consonant of roots they are added to.
  • the endings for “her/his” and “their” are the same.

NAMING THE PERSON WHO POSSESSES SOMETHING

In English, when we want to name a person that something belongs to, we add an apostrophe + s to the person's name, followed by the object:

Mary's car

Ilaija's two CD's

Piita's dogs

 

In Inuktitut, these three sentences would be written this way:

Mialiup nunasiutinga

Ilaijaup qilliqtungik

Piitaup qimmingit

 

  • Note that the affix -up is attached to the possessor's name, much like apostrophe + s is used in English.
  • the affix -nga is added to the person or thing that is possessed if it is singular; -ngik if it is dual; and -ngit if it is plural.
If -up is added to a root that ends in a consonant, it deletes the consonant:

Naullaq + up =

Naullaup qullinga

Naullaq's qulliq

Remember that in Inuktitut you normally don't find more than two vowels in a row. So, if you delete the final consonant and the root ends in two vowels, just add p instead of -up:

qallunaaq + up =

qallunaap illuralaanga

the qallunaaq's cabin

 

-up works for more than just names. It can be added to any noun, as long as it is singular:

angutiup nasanga

the man's hat

najaup kamingik the sister's kamiks

inuup umiangit

the Inuk's boats